Sections: Split, Slice and Combine Collections¶
Sections are chare collections formed from subsets of other collections. You can form sections by splitting, slicing and combining other collections (Groups, Arrays, Sections) in arbitrary ways.
Creating sections involves messaging. When creating sections using any of the below mechanisms, store and reuse the resulting section proxies and do not repeatedly create the same sections.
charm.split(proxy, numsections, section_func=None, elems=None)
Split a chare collection into numsections number of sections. Returns a list of section proxies.
The parameter proxy is a Group, Array or Section proxy, that refers to the collection to split.
There are two methods of specifying sections. The first, and preferred method, is to use section_func, which is a function that takes a chare object and returns the list of sections to which the object belongs to (sections identified from 0 to numsections-1). It is evaluated at the PE where the object lives (the function must be defined on that PE). If the object is not part of any section, it must return a negative number (or empty list).
The second method consists in using elems, which is a list of lists of chare indexes that are part of each section. For very large sections, this method can be much more expensive than using a section_func. Also, it is not recommended for collections where multiple elements have the same index, as it can’t discriminate between them (such collections can be obtained using the combine operation -see below-).
Elements can be part of multiple sections if desired.
This is a shorthand notation to obtain one section from a proxy, using slicing syntax instead of
- proxy[[start]:[stop][:step]]: for group proxies.
- proxy[start_0:stop_0[:step_0], …, start_n-1:stop_n-1[:step_n-1]]: for n-dimensional array proxies.
See examples below.
Combines multiple collections into one. Returns a section proxy.
The parameter proxies is a list of proxies that refer to the collections to combine. Collection and chare types don’t have to match as long as the methods that will be called via the section proxy have the same signature.
Note that sending one broadcast to a combined collection is more efficient than sending a separate broadcast to each component. Similarly for reductions.
The proxy returned by combine can be used for broadcast and reductions on the combined collection, and can also be split. But it cannot be used for sending messages to individual elements in the combined collection.
The following example first creates a group of chares and then creates a section from elements on even-numbered PEs:
from charm4py import charm, Chare, Group class Test(Chare): def sayHi(self): print('Hello from', self.thisIndex) def sectionNo(obj): if obj.thisIndex % 2 == 0: return  else: return  def main(args): g = Group(Test) # creates one section of elements on even-numbered PEs secProxy = charm.split(g, 1, sectionNo) # this does the same thing with slicing notation secProxy2 = g[::2] secProxy.sayHi(awaitable=True).get() exit() charm.start(main)
The following example creates a 4 x 4 array of chares, and splits it into 4 sections. It then sends the section proxies to the chares, and tells the first section to perform a section reduction:
from charm4py import charm, Chare, Array, Future, Reducer class Test(Chare): def recvSecProxies(self, proxies): self.secProxy = proxies[sectionNo(self)] def doreduction(self, future): self.contribute(1, Reducer.sum, future, self.secProxy) def sectionNo(obj): return obj.thisIndex # first index determines the section number def main(args): a = Array(Test, (4, 4)) # create a 4 x 4 array # split array into 4 sections secProxies = charm.split(a, 4, sectionNo) a.recvSecProxies(secProxies, awaitable=True).get() # blocks until proxies received f = Future() # tell section 0 to perform a reduction secProxies.doreduction(f) print(f.get()) # returns 4 exit() charm.start(main)
This final example creates two 4 x 4 chare arrays, combines them into one section, and broadcasts a message to this section. It then creates 4 sections, each of which spans subsets of both arrays, and broadcasts a message to each section:
from charm4py import charm, Chare, Array class Test(Chare): def sayHi(self): print('Hello from', self.thisIndex) def sectionNo(obj): return obj.thisIndex # first index determines the section number def main(args): a1 = Array(Test, (4, 4)) # create a 4 x 4 array a2 = Array(Test, (4, 4)) # create a 4 x 4 array combined = charm.combine(a1, a2) combined.sayHi() # broadcast to all members of a1 and a2 # make 4 cross-array sections involving the two arrays secProxies = charm.split(combined, 4, sectionNo) futures =  for proxy in secProxies: futures.append(proxy.sayHi(awaitable=True)) charm.wait(futures) exit() charm.start(main)